By default, each steel element is calculated using the global steel design assumptions, in conformity with the current standard, but the steel assumptions can be defined locally for each element using the options available in the properties window.
To display only the steel design properties of the selected element(s), from the Properties filter drop-down list select Steel Properties.
Properties window
In the properties window, you can view and modify the properties of steel linear elements, allowing for detailed customisation and management.
Clipping: enables the clipping of forces option.
Extremity: defines the clipping distance for the element extremities. The distance can be automatically calculated by the program or manually defined by the user.
XY plane: defines if the clipping distance in XY plane is automatically calculated or user defined.
Value: displays the automatic clipping value for the XY plane. If the user-defined option is enabled, a custom value can be entered.
XZ plane: defines if the clipping distance in XZ plane is automatically calculated or user defined.
Value: displays the automatic clipping value for the XZ plane. If the user-defined option is enabled, a custom value can be entered.
To calculate: when this option is enabled, the element is considered in the steel calculation. When disabled, the concerned element is not calculated.
Design Results: Displaying maximum working Ratio value of all design verifications executed inside Advance Design for this element.
Work Ratio: Displaying maximum working Ratio value of all design verifications executed inside Advance Design for this element.
General Design template: you can assign a design template that defines the element design properties. Select one of the available templates from the drop-down list.
Cross section class: select the cross section class from the drop down list (auto class - the calculation is done automatically, class 1 and 2 - plastic, class 3 and 4 - elastic). To impose the effective characteristics of class 4, click and enter the desired values in the Effective characteristics dialog box.
Effective characteristics dialog box
2nd order with warping and imperfections: Non-linear analysis with 7th degree of freedom (warping) and initial imperfection from scaled dominant eigenvector. Intended when cross-section is not bisymmetrical, but suitable for all cross-section types.
Number of iterations: select the number of iterations.
Stability - 2nd order parameters: opens the Advanced stability displacements dialog box.
Elem. Verification: Enable / disable the deflection verification of the element.
Define the allowable deflections (1 and 2). Allowable deflection = length of element/n, where "n" is a positive integer.
Reference length: Determines the way the reference length for deflection is calculated.
L: Reference length for deflection value.
Verif. location: select from the drop-down list the location on the element for which the deflection are verified (extremity, span, envelope).
Super Element Verification: Take into account the super element at deflection verification
Define the allowable deflections (1 and 2). Allowable deflection = length of element/n, where "n" is a positive integer.
Reference length: Determines the way the reference length for deflection is calculated.
L: Reference length for deflection value.
Verif. location: select from the drop-down list the location on the element for which the deflection is verified (extremity, span, envelope).
Elem. Verification: Enable / disable the buckling verification of the element. For cable and tie linear elements this verification is disabled.
Buckling length: allows the definition of buckling lengths for the selected element. In the corresponding cell, click to access the Buckling configuration dialog box.
Buckling dialog
Shape subject to buckling: specifies if the element is subject to buckling or not. If not, the magnification factors (i.e., k1, kfy and kfz) are not calculated and are considered equal to 1 (see Conventions for CSA notations).
xz plane - large inertia and xy plane - small inertia: define the calculation mode of the buckling lengths for the xy and xz plane of the selected steel element.
L0: length of the element to the next point of support in the plane buckling.
Lfz, Lfy: buckling length about the local y and z axes, associated to the Iz / Iy inertia.
Auto calculation: calculates the buckling using the method specified in the Steel design settings dialog box.
Imposed value: calculates the buckling lengths by a value entered in the corresponding field.
Super-element ratio: calculates the buckling lengths by a specified value multiplied by the super-element length.
Element ratio: calculates the buckling lengths by a specified value multiplied by the element length.
Mesh size ratio: calculates the buckling lengths by a specified value multiplied by the mesh size.
Nodes (strong axis): specifies if the structure has braced or unbraced nodes, for the xz plane (stronger axis) of the element.
Nodes (weak axis): specifies if the structure has braced or unbraced nodes, for the xy plane (weak axis) of the element.
The blue highlighted fields display the calculated buckling lengths, Lfz and Lfy, when the steel calculation is completed.
Elem. verification: Enable / disable the lateral-torsional buckling verification of the element. For cable and tie linear elements this verification is disabled.
Lateral-torsional buckling length: allows the definition of lateral-torsional buckling lengths for the selected element. Click to access the Lateral-torsional buckling configuration dialog box.
HSS design thickness If a HSS shape is selected, specify the design wall thickness, t, that is considered during the design or verification: it shall be taken equal to 0.9 times the nominal wall thickness (0.9t) or equal to the nominal thickness (1.0t) (see The Canadian Handbook of Steel Construction - Standard Mill Practice/ S16-14 5.1.3).
HSS design axial stress-relieved Select the option to account for stress relaxation in the calculation of axial compression according to Clause 13.3.1 from S16-01/09/14.
Where:
n = 1.34 (non-stress-relieved)
n = 2.24 (stress-relieved) option checked
Stiffeners spacing Enter the spacing between I beam web stiffeners for shear capacity calculation OR enter the spacing between intermittent fillers for double steel angles. A value of 0 means that the steel angles are connected (see S16-01/09/14, Clause 13.4).
Stiffeners tension field Ft If the option is unchecked, then Ft = 0 and the tension field component of the post-buckling stress is not considered in the calculation of the shear resistance of the beam (see S16-01/09/14, Clause 14.5).
Shear Resistance
The factored shear resistance of the web of a flexural member, V_{r}, shall be taken as
V_{r} = φ_{s} A_{w} F_{s}
Where:
F_{s}, the ultimate shear stress, is equal to F_{cr} + F_{t}
Factor Kz Effective compressive length factor used for the computation of buckling due to torsion. Select an automatic or manual computation of Kz. If the "Auto" option is selected, Kz is automatically calculated (see S16-01/09/14, Clause 13.3.2).
Factor Kz value displays the value of the Kz factor.
Net area: Calculation of the tension resistance based on the net area of the section (with bolts considered in one row), acc. EN 1993-1-8 (§3.10.3).
Bolt holes on: Angle section leg to put bolt holes on.
Bolt/Bolt hole: Selection of bolt and hole diameter.
Bolt nominal diameter: The nominal diameter of bolts. If value is set to Auto, it is selected according the leg length of the angle section.
d: Bolt diameter value (mm).
Bolt hole diameter: The diameter of hols for bolts. If value is set to Auto, it is selected according the nominal diameter of a selected bolt.
d0: Hole diameter value (mm).
Number of bolts: The number of bolts at one end. Bolts are considered in one row.